Volume 13, Issue 4 (December 2017)                   IJEEE 2017, 13(4): 385-398 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Abstract:   (1269 Views)

This paper presents an online two-stage Q-learning based multi-agent (MA) controller for load frequency control (LFC) in an interconnected multi-area multi-source power system integrated with distributed energy resources (DERs). The proposed control strategy consists of two stages. The first stage is employed a PID controller which its parameters are designed using sine cosine optimization (SCO) algorithm and are fixed. The second one is a reinforcement learning (RL) based supplementary controller that has a flexible structure and improves the output of the first stage adaptively based on the system dynamical behavior. Due to the use of RL paradigm integrated with PID controller in this strategy, it is called RL-PID controller. The primary motivation for the integration of RL technique with PID controller is to make the existing local controllers in the industry compatible to reduce the control efforts and system costs. This novel control strategy combines the advantages of the PID controller with adaptive behavior of MA to achieve the desired level of robust performance under different kind of uncertainties caused by stochastically power generation of DERs, plant operational condition changes, and physical nonlinearities of the system. The suggested decentralized controller is composed of the autonomous intelligent agents, who learn the optimal control policy from interaction with the system. These agents update their knowledge about the system dynamics continuously to achieve a good frequency oscillation damping under various severe disturbances without any knowledge of them. It leads to an adaptive control structure to solve LFC problem in the multi-source power system with stochastic DERs. The results of RL-PID controller in comparison to the traditional PID and fuzzy-PID controllers is verified in a multi-area power system integrated with DERs through some performance indices.

Full-Text [PDF 2272 kb]   (566 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research Paper | Subject: Power systems Control
Received: 2017/05/24 | Accepted: 2017/11/05 | Published: 2017/12/01